The allocation of resources for the conduct of science with the objective of best serving the public interest is the focus of science policy. The funding of science, scientists’ careers, and how to turn scientific discoveries into technological innovation to boost commercial product development, competitiveness, economic growth, and economic development are some of the topics covered. Knowledge networks, collaborations, and the intricate distributions of expertise, equipment, and know-how are at the center of science policy. A fundamental concern of science policy is comprehending the processes and organizational context of the generation of novel and innovative ideas in science and engineering. Weapons development, health care, and environmental monitoring are examples of science policy topics.