Applications of nanotechnologies in medicine and healthcare are referred to as nanomedicine. In particular, diseases can be prevented, diagnosed, monitored, and treated through the use of nano-enabled techniques and nanoscale technologies. Several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, musculoskeletal conditions, psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, bacterial and viral infections, diabetes, and tissue-engineered constructs, implants, and pharmaceutical therapeutics, have advanced treatments thanks to nanotechnologies’ significant potential in the field of medicine. There have been a number of nanoparticles and nanomaterials studied and approved for clinical use thus far. The following is a discussion of some common types of nanoparticles.
Lipids and amphiphilic molecules make up micelles, which are amphiphilic surfactant molecules. Micelles can be used to incorporate hydrophobic therapeutic agents because they spontaneously aggregate and self-assemble into spherical vesicles with a hydrophilic outer monolayer and a hydrophobic core in aqueous conditions. Bioavailability can be enhanced by increasing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs thanks to the unique properties of micelles. Micelles have diameters ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Micelles can be used as drug delivery, imaging, contrast, and therapeutic agents, among other things.
Liposomes are lipid bilayer-encased spherical vesicles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to several microns. Therapeutic agents that are hydrophilic in the aqueous phase and hydrophobic in the liposomal membrane layer can be incorporated into liposomes. Liposomes have many uses; Polymers, antibodies, and/or proteins can change their surface properties, making it possible to incorporate macromolecular drugs like nucleic acids and crystalline metals into liposomes. The first FDA-approved nanomedicine, poly(ethylene glycol liposomal doxorubicin, has been used to treat breast cancer. It increases the effective drug concentration in malignant effusions without increasing the overall dose.
Nanotubes of carbon:
Carbon nanotubes are cylinder molecules made up of sheets of carbon atoms rolled up into one layer (graphene). They can have one or more walls, be multi-walled, or be made up of several nanotubes that are concentrically linked together. As drug carriers, carbon nanotubes can achieve significantly higher loading capacities due to their large external surface area. Additionally, carbon tubes are appealing as imaging contrast agents and biological sensors due to their distinctive optical, mechanical, and electronic properties.